This is the 1st Column. The modern idea of a restaurant – as well as the term itself – appeared in Paris in the 18th century.[2] For centuries Paris had taverns which served food at large common tables, but they were notoriously crowded, noisy, not very clean, and served food of dubious quality – not very good at all. Restaurant guides review restaurants, often ranking them or providing information.
This is the 2nd Column. In about 1765 a new kind of eating establishment, called a “Bouillon”, was opened on rue des Poulies, near the Louvre, by a man named Boulanger. It had separate tables, a menu, and specialized in soups made with a base of meat and eggs, which were said to be restaurants or, in English “restoratives”. Other similar bouillons soon opened around Paris.  Thanks to Boulanger and his imitators, these soups moved from the category of remedy into the category of health food and ultimately into the category of ordinary food….their existence was predicated on health, not gustatory, requirements. The first luxury restaurant in Paris was called the Taverne Anglaise.

Restaurant guides review restaurants, often ranking them or providing information to guide consumers (type of food, handicap accessibility, facilities, etc.). One of the most famous contemporary guides is the Michelin series of guides which accord from 1 to 3 stars to restaurants they perceive to be of high culinary merit. Restaurants with stars in the Michelin guide are formal, very expensive establishments.

This is the best restaurant I have ever visited. Great location and great food. The only minor downside are the prices which are pretty high but I guess quality comes with the price. - John Barbista

The main competitor to the Michelin guide in Europe is the guidebook series published by Gault Millau. Unlike the Michelin guide which takes the restaurant décor and service into consideration with its rating, Gault Millau only judges the quality of the food. Its ratings are on a scale of 1 to 20, with 20 being the highest.

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Abarber (from the Latin barba, “beard”) is a person whose occupation is mainly to cut, dress, groom, style and shave men’s and boys’ hair. A barber’s place of work is known as a “barber shop” or a “barber’s”. Barber shops are also places of social interaction and public discourse. In some instances, barbershops are also public forums. They are the locations of open debates, voicing public concerns, and engaging citizens in discussions about contemporary issues. They were also influential in helping shape male identity. In Australia, the official term for a barber is hairdresser.

In previous times, barbers (known as barber-surgeons) also performed surgery. With the development of safety razors and the decreasing prevalence of beards, in English-speaking cultures, most barbers now specialize in cutting men's scalp hair.

In modern times, the term “barber” is used both as a professional title and to refer to hairdressers who specialize in men’s hair. Historically, all hairdressers were considered barbers. In the 20th century, the profession of cosmetology branched off from barbering, and today hairdressers may be licensed as either barbers or cosmetologists. Barbers differ with respect to where they work, which services they are licensed to provide, and what name they use to refer to themselves.

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